Myelofibrosis (MF) is a rare type of blood cancer that affects the bone marrow. It is a type of chronic leukemia, which means that it progresses slowly over time. MF causes scar tissue to form in the bone marrow, making it difficult for the body to produce enough healthy blood cells.

MF is a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN), which means that it is caused by the uncontrolled growth of blood cells in the bone marrow. MPNs are a group of blood cancers that are related to leukemia.

MF can develop on its own (primary MF), or it can develop from another bone marrow disorder, such as polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia (secondary MF).

Symptoms of Myelofibrosis

The symptoms of MF can vary depending on the stage of the disease. In the early stages, many people do not experience any symptoms. As the disease progresses, symptoms may include:

  1. Fatigue
  2. Weakness
  3. Shortness of breath
  4. Pale skin
  5. Abdominal fullness due to an enlarged spleen
  6. Pain in the bones or joints
  7. Night sweats
  8. Fever
  9. Pruritus (itching)

Causes of myelofibrosis

The exact cause of MF is unknown. However, it is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

Treatment for Myelofibrosis

There is no cure for MF, but there are treatments that can help to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Treatment options include:


There are a number of medications that can be used to treat MF, including JAK inhibitors, hypomethylating agents, and chemotherapy drugs.

Stem cell transplant

A stem cell transplant is a procedure that replaces the diseased bone marrow with healthy stem cells. This is a curative treatment for MF, but it is only recommended for people who are younger and have a good chance of success.

If you are experiencing any of the symptoms of MF, it is important to see a doctor right away. Early diagnosis and treatment can help to improve the prognosis of the disease.

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Supporting Organizations

  1. American Cancer Society, Inc.
  2. Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research
  3. Genetic and Rare Diseases (GARD) Information Center
  4. Leukemia & Lymphoma Society
  5. National Bone Marrow Transplant Link
  6. National Cancer Institute